According to the previous findings, the aging is affected by three main factors, such as biological, social and environmental

According to the previous findings, the aging is affected by three main factors, such as biological, social and environmental

This could be done by higher degree of governmental control over businesses, as well as by implementing policies that could terminate corruption. Education should become one of the most important spheres of developing in the analyzed countries. This should be done to increase literacy among the Latin American population. Appropriate level of education could help to develop different industries and create more work places. This, in turn, may decrease currently high level of unemployment and poverty. As pointed out in the article, the organized gang criminals exist as a result of high unemployment rate among the youth. It should be emphasized that education should not only be received by children in schools and universities. There is also a strong need to establish evening schools for adults to become proficient in various spheres and obtain literacy. These measures will boost infrastructure and create numerous possibilities for the population to become prosperous and successful.

The discussed countries should also reduce drug trafficking, as well as handle the people who are engaged in these illegal activities. Drug trafficking problem can only be combated if the member states join hands in the fight against the vice. For this to be performed, it is significant for Latin American countries not to rely on drug trafficking as a main source of economic profits for the government. They should reject this source of revenues and develop other industries which could increase the economic level of the society. In relation to this problem, it is also important to deal with drug abusers and implement special rehabilitation courses for them. Drug dealers, on the other hand, should be punished in order to prevent the population from massive drug abuse.

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Another example of fallacy is the use of irrelevant facts or red herring. By using this approach, the author can distract a reader’s attention and introduce a new set of facts which do not connect with the topic of discussion. This fallacy is usually used to make the audience be less concentrated on the major debate. The attention could also be distracted from someone’s crime or guilt, as it is presented in the following example: “Wife: I cannot believe that you forgot Valentine’s Day again. Husband: Did I tell you how beautiful you look in that dress?” (Van Vleet 23). This example is the simplest one because it is aimed at distracting woman’s attention by making her compliments. Red herring approach is frequently used in the courts by lawyers to distract the jury from real facts and make them believe in other facts.writing a profile essay For instance, the argumentation could be displayed in the following example: “Professor Conway complains of inadequate parking on our campus. But did you know that last year Conway carried on a torrid love affair with a member of the English department?” (Walton 139). In this way, it is possible to lead the jury as well as the court in the wrong direction.


The article under analysis is called “Migrants Face Fortress Europe’s Deadly Moat”, in which the author reports about the death of 1200 people in the Mediterranean. The victims included predominantly migrants from Mali, Syria, Eritrea, and Somalia, who set out from North America in hope to reach European shores. The author also targets the political aspects of the tragedy, pointing out the opinions and assumptions made by the European politicians. In the article, the attention has been paid to the criticism of the policies in Europe regarding migration procedures. Specifically, the majority of political agents and governmental authorities are not willing to encourage the migration process. In response, they have developed a three-fold strategy that strives to militarize border controls, outsource controls, and criminalizing migration in general.

Further in the article, the attention has been paid to the analysis for the EU security strategies as well as the problem of increase in migration rate. Apparently, the author attempted to make a connection between the tragedy on boat as well as the European government’s reluctance to deliver permission on migration. In fact, the authorities assure that these security measures have been taken purely for protection of the nation’s integrity and for reducing the rates of illegal immigration. Additionally, the border controls initiatives have already been taken into the deepest consideration to define the problem of African Migration. The point is that France and Britain are concerned with migration from Libya and, as a result, their forces have been directed at air attacks. Similar expansion activities are associated with Morocco. In the light of the tragedy that happened in the see, the major approach to managing security issues and border control have been reconsidered. Specifically, Malik pays attention to European policy’s failed strategy that promised to destroy smugglers’ boats. Apparently, this is the most essential and argumentative part of the article revealing the author’s assumption regarding the nature and reasons of the disaster. Mentioning multiple interventions of the European Union, along with the airstrikes and marine military equipment, explains the connection between numerous disasters in the sea as well as the strategic framework chosen by the European government.

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In the end of the article, the author concludes that Europe has created serious barriers, along with the moral borders, which complicate the communication and commercial relations. More importantly, the barricades did not allow other countries and European countries in particular to find a consensus regarding the genuine values and human rights. The Mediterranean region will continue to suffer from human death unless some changes are introduced to the European policies regarding migration.

Response and Application

The article that has been chosen for analysis is called and starts with the bright example of argumentum ad misericordiam that is also known as the appeal to pity. The author starts with the enumeration of countries from which the people migrated and who suffered from the boat incident. Additionally, irrelevant facts have been used in the text to distract the readers from the fact and enhance the position of the disaster. The emphasis has been placed on the level of poverty in the countries from which the victims originated: “Fleeing war and poverty, most had paid large sums to traffickers” (Malik). There are also persuasive facts named by authorities, such as European politicians: “Who is to blame? European politicians point the finger at traffickers” (Malik). There are many other fallacies which emphasize the topic and introduce almost all types of argumentation to prove the blame. The analysis of the article as well as the choice of fallacies are appropriate because of the topic of the research.

The use of irrelevant facts describes the author’s description of European border control strategies, which are somehow connected with the tragedy in the Mediterranean. Specifically, the author writes, “When the European Union treats immigration as a problem of criminality, it is not just the traffickers who are targets. In 2004, A german ship rescued 37 African refugees from a dinghy” (Malik). The second sentence does not connect with the first one much. However, the author puts them together to distract the audience’s attention and emphasize the negative consequences of the security framework, which makes the entire argument ambiguous. Both approaches used in the article enhance the author’s main idea regarding the irrelevant security reforms introduced by the European government.

In general, the article has interesting assumptions, statistical analysis, rhetoric approaches, and use of fallacies. The topic of discussion disclosed in the article is important nowadays in the lights of human rights protection and equality. Therefore, the European community should reconsider the priorities and define new steps in social, political, and cultural development of the continent. Specifically, the author introduces a range of approaches and fallacies to persuade the audience that the tragedy in the sea is not an accident, but a consequence of the irrelevant protection policies introduced by the European authorities in an attempt to strengthen the border control.

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Problem Statements

Conventionally, the nature and source of the political attitude has been subject of the much investigation.  Such attitude is believed to be built from sensible, unencumbered reactions to the environmental events. However, more investigation emphasizes on the built-in and automated quality of many political responses according to brain activation variations( Oxley et al, 2008). However, no research shows why some people embrace certain political attitudes while others appear primed to adopt quite different attitudes.


The question about whether the America’s red-blue separate based on the voter’s physiology fundamentally offers a justifiable rationale for the investigator to assess the relationship.  Traditionally such aspect has largely been associated with imaginative reaction to the environmental events (Oxley et al, 2008). Although the political attitude has been a source of study for most scholars, very little effort has been focused on the investigating the biological impact on the political attitude.


In the study, the authors have devised a supposition that variations in physical sensitivity to threat are related with the political values. The investigators aims to reveals that political attitude largely differs with physiological attributes connected to environmental threats (Oxley et al, 2008).

Measurement of Variables

In the study, there are amount of both independent and dependent variables. Independent variables included both threatening and non-threatening images, age, gender, education and income.  In the study, the dependent variable included an additive index of 18 issues item that were according to Standard Wilson Patterson battery (Oxley et al, 2008).

Research Design

The authors for the study used a quasi-experimental design. The study look similar to experimental design but it lacks the key ingredients such as random assignment. The research design was structured to determine whether political affiliation is related to the physiological traits through a series of interviews and experiment.


The subject of the study was recruited by the Bureau of Sociological Research at the University of Nebraska. In the study, a random sample of the resident was selected in Lincoln, Nebraska to participate in the study (Oxley et al, 2008). an initial telephone call and an introductory letter was utilized to pose limited number of item to the respondent with the purpose of obtaining a group of individual with strong political conviction toward whom the intense and more focused  examination will be directed. A total of 1,310 people were contacted and 608 completed the screening items (Oxley et al, 2008). The subjects that were recruited for this particular project only if they responded yes to all the three questions poses in the screening items. As a result, a total of 143 responded agreed to participate on the physiological experiment in the laboratory. BOSR managed to schedule 48 participants at both sessions for the study.


The instrument used to collect the data was well defined. All subject were in additional to undertaking a physiological assessment, all participant also undertook an extensive computer-based survey questionnaire that include a demographic questions, questions on political and issues of preferences, as well as a series of personality and psychological batteries (Oxley et al, 2008). All socio-demographic and attitude data was collected using self-reporter computer based study administer via Media Lab software (Oxley et al, 2008).  Furthermore, the instrument was clearly developed to include a coding scale that determines the extent in which the respondent agreed or disagreed with the items in the questionnaires.

Data Collection

The data used in the study was collected through the use of questionnaires that determined their political conviction and affiliations in relations to their physiological characteristics. Ethical consideration was put into contemplated in the study in attempt to avoid violation of fundamental rights of the participant. The entire participant was informed of the purpose of the study before recruitment. The required details of the study were available to the subject hence their performance was based on informed choices. Besides, the participant confidentiality was highly protected.

Data Analysis

The data was analyzed using the SPPS v.14.0. A regression result from the main text was taken form a linear ordinary test square regression analysis.  Though linear regression model are largely associated with social science where correlation design are common, the validity of the estimates produced   by the multiple regression were critically dependent on series of assumptions (Oxley et al, 2008). The analysis of the residual from the regression models ensured that all assumptions were satisfied.

Author’s Conclusion

The author’s revealed that the extent to which individuals are physiologically responsive to threat appear to shows the degree to which they advocate policies that protects the existing social structures from both internal and external threats (Oxley et al, 2008).

Possible threat to Internal, External and Construct Validity

In relation to the internal threat, the appropriateness for the inferences made on the basis of the study is insufficient to warrant the authors’ conclusion (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). Although the author’s have significantly strived to use variable that show relationship between the political convention and physiological characteristics, variables used in the study fails to explicitly measure the intended parameters. The Study has utilized considerably large number of variables that make it complex to attain a substantive objective of the study (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014).

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In regard to external validity, though the study considerably strived to recruit a large sample size, only 48 out more than 600 respondents participated in the two waves of the student. Therefore, the sample size appears inadequate to full inform or prove the hypothesis. The confidence level of the study is very low in respect to the magnitude of the investigation (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). The sample size used in the study compromise the reader’s confidence in stating whether the study’s results are applicable to other groups. The subjects were asked about the levels of support for 28 policies or political acts and only 18 were identified. However, the identified factors are less likely to be held by individuals concerned with the protecting the interest of participating group.

The study has used an exemplary design that offers the study both content and criterion validity. The appropriateness for the inference made on the basis of the study and measurement is specifically supported by the research design, sample size, data collection and data analysis (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). In the physiological assessment, an alternative way of looking at the eye blink data considerably ignores the adaptation, and presents mean blink amplitude for all seven threatening stimuli, again with the same group division.


In the conclusion, it is evident that though the article indicates presence of minor flaws that affect it validity, the article has considerably achieved its objective. To large extent, it has answered the question raised in the problem statement. The findings have clearly shown a relationship between individual political views and physiological characteristics. If I was to redo the study, little adjustment in the sample size is going to be effected. I will increase the sample size in order to enhance the confidence level of the study (In Zumbo & In Chan, 2014). The article is useful and makes sense especially since it has established that a relationship exist between different political perception upheld by individuals and physiological traits.  Besides, the analysis is consistent with the outcome reported in the main text thus suggesting that the findings as well as the inferences of the paper are robust with regard to the estimation and measurement. The study is very essential to both the society and public administrator since it changes the traditional attitudes that assumed attitudes were built form sensible, imaginative reactions to environmental events. The study does not considerably changes the individual way of practice since it robustness and confidence level is still lacking. However, a more compressive study on the field is crucial in order to establish more interconnectedness.

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Aging is a difficult and painful process for many adults. Especially aging brings discomfort for those who fear growing old for various reasons: wear and tear, general imbalance, disengagement, continuity theory, etc. Many are unable to accept this natural process that everybody has to eventually go through, and therefore suffer through their retirement. Home care centers for elderly have already been created as a way to restore the balance in psycho-emotional, biological and environmental states for the aging and increase the satisfaction of life at this period. Nevertheless, the latest research in the area of gerontology had shown that this is not always the case. Gerontology is a study that reflects a research based upon family caregiving, intergenerational issues, ethnicity, residential care, etc. In one of the articles associated with aspects of gerontology, Goldsmith (2012) discusses the genetic issues of aging and suggests that the human lifespan depends on the programmed and non-programed theories. In turn, Coles (2013) enlarges on the advances of contemporary gerontology and puts an emphasis on the importance of creating a positive aging vision. an interesting research was conducted by Kerbler (2012), who states that “the concept of ageing at home could be implemented with the help of information and communication technologies” (p. 166). Thus, gerontology aims at explaining the theories of aging and finding the solutions to make this process as smooth and comfortable as possible for the elderly. According to the previous findings, the aging is affected by three main factors, such as biological, social and environmental. The research articles by Ayalon (2011) and Ayalon et al. (2012), describe the situations that touch social and environmental factors that affect the outcome of aging.

Let us walk through the analysis of social aspects and aging theories described in the studies of the writers. First, the articles by Ayalon (2011), and Ayalon et al. (2012) are focused on the effect of care performed in home settings by foreign workers who take care of older people in their natural Israel. The writers argue the concern of speculating the correlation between the aspect of caregiving and loneliness. According to the social theory of aging, growing old is a co-dependent interactive process that in a vicious circle affects the environment as well as the elderly. The article by Ayalon (2011) describes the need for the elderly to have someone to watch over. True that according to the activity theory, engaging active social interactions with younger adults positively affect on the satisfaction and well-being of the recipient. Nevertheless, this approach may have unwanted effects on the elderly in case of disability or other reasons that stop the recipient from maintaining middle-aged lifestyle and meaningful participation in active interfacing.

Second, growing old the individuals experience mutual separation from society. As a result fact, the home care centers are being created in order to oppress the ego-centric and self-absorved features that are being developed in the individuals and get back on track to societal lifestyle. It is widely acknowledged that older people in settings that are distant from their home tend to feel lack of attention and loneliness due to the absence of their family members. However, Ayalon’s (2011) article refutes this particular idea and examines the effects of foreign workers on the social, psychological, and biological aspects of older people that tend to bring positive results, and even satisfaction. The scholars determine what makes foreign people become human services workers. Among the reasons are “dramatic demographic changes” and “availability of informal care” (Ayalon, 2011, p. 376). The researchers shed light on live-in home care for elderly that engage them in close communication with at least another person, who helps them to be predisposed for self-reflection and be free from social roles, yet still be attached to social interactions.

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Third, continuity and life course theory is a problematic aspect for perception of an aging person. The patient is used to develop attachments while being in life as everything is forever. Nevrtheless, when the dangerous age comes there is a need to overcome and accept the concept of inevitable change and decline. The researchers (2011, and 2012) explore the irreplaceable need to walk the elderly through this journey at the end of its cycle. The notion of live-in home care has reached the level of extreme popularity and Ayalon’s article (2011) reflects upon the positive sides of such an experience. It is fair to conjecture that the article’s hypothesis could be supported by the scholar’s idea to engage various stakeholders into the research. It means that older people, their family and foreign workers contributed to the study.

Let us walk through the analysis of environmental aspects and aging theories described in the studies of the writers. Environmental gerontology studies the aspects that optimize, modify and ameliorate the state of the aging person from environmental perspective. The studies describe how do live-in home foreign social workers affect the environment of the elderly that they take care of, as well as the level of satisfaction from this experience. As the studies of social theories of aging have more or less clear overview and the cause and effect results, the behavioral environmental gerontology is at the cradle of the research. The researchers conclude that the environmental theories have dual effect on the elderly.

First, Ayalon (2011) sticks to particular theories, arguing that foreign live-in workers affect old people positively. The article provides a clear-cut literature review that performs the function of informing potential readers or the target audience about the challenges of the research, concerning the aspects of home care. It is evident from the literature review that a great gap exists failing to give a proper definition of satisfaction within the context of home care. The author of the study makes a striking conclusion that a home worker has a positive influence on older impaired people. The research did not show that cognitive status somehow affected the satisfaction levels. The older adults who actually spend the majority of their time with their foreign home care workers were more likely to view the workers as members of the family. Their family members, on the other hand, were more hesitant to do so, because to some degree, by allowing another person into their families, they may relinquish their own place and status. (Ayalon, 2011, p. 381).

In addition to the above-mentioned results, the article sheds light on a finding that family members` satisfaction is dependent upon the level of impairment of the older recipients of care. Although the study is not associated with any theory of gerontology, it is worth conjecturing that it made a tremendous contribution to the field because Ayalon (2011) managed to show the importance of a live-in worker in caregiving practices.




Suffice to say, as any other article according to a qualitative study, this particular one includes the implications of further research for gerontological policy and practices. As Ayalon’s (2011) article has evident limitations, it is worth mentioning that the article was narrowed to a specific variable of satisfaction. Thus, it is not possible to generalize the results of the article to the entire population of social care workers. Undoubtedly, another research should focus on generalization as well as other possible variables apart from satisfaction. Regarding policy matters, the authorities may provide special merit pays for social workers to encourage them to function better, as it increases satisfaction levels of all the stakeholders.

On the contrary, there can be no doubt in the assumption that Ayalon et al.’s (2012) article supplements the previous one and refutes its positions to some extent. The value for the article relates to the emphasis put by authors on the influence of a live-in worker on the levels of loneliness in older people: “[…] we argue that this arrangement may, from time to time, predispose the older care recipient to intense feelings of loneliness” (Ayalon et al., 2012, p. 190). Nevertheless, the study fails to shed light on the origins and consequences of loneliness. It is worth mentioning that Ayalon et al.’s (2012) article proves the expectations of many researchers due to the reason that some older people tend to feel lonely as they come to realize that their family members cannot take care of them.

The article contributes to gerontology in a way that it sheds light on the global trend of home care in the light for the recipients’ loneliness. The authors synthesize literature, thus creating a theoretical framework for their research. This particular theoretical framework constitutes the speculations over the subjective nature of loneliness in general, and differentiates between emotional and social types of loneliness (Ayalon et al., 2012, p. 192) that is peculiar to older people. The loneliness is explained through the prism of cognitive and physical disabilities.

Ayalon at al.’s (2012) article could be marked with the appropriateness of the theoretical background presented by a synthesis of suitable literature. The key findings that the article provides consist in the assumption that cognitive and physiological disabilities are the main triggers for loneliness. It is explained by the deteriorated senses that manifest themselves in different communication problems that result in association with social loneliness. In addition, a person may feel lonely due to the loss of independency in walking, eating, etc. It is essential to realize that every individual has his/her own peculiarities of aging (Cline, 2014). The matter is that older adults are more susceptible to the influence of different age stereotypes. This article could be tied to other gerontological issues. Seemingly, the results proved that older adults attach negative attributes to their age that become salient (Weiss & Lang, 2012). A large number of researchers venture into the matter of the influence that age exerts on the mental side. According to Weiss, Sussenberg and Freund (2013), “Negative age stereotypes are pervasive and threaten older adults’ self-esteem” (p. 1140). The studies suggest that older adults are marked with the occurrence of “prejudicial attitudes” to their age that constitute the background of serious stereotypes (Stewart, Chipperfield, Perry, & Weiner, 2012). Prevention of the negative consequences of age-related stereotypes should be viewed through the prism of positive intergenerational contact due to the reason that it “can reduce vulnerability to stereotype threat among older people” (Abrams et al., 2006, p. 691). Apart from the stereotypes, “another potential device responsible for loneliness in this group of older adults is the fact that their personal care is provided by a paid worker” (Ayalon et al., 2012, p. 195).

Ayalon et al.’s (2012) article has a variety of implications for health care professionals and gerontological researchers. The matter is that caregivers should allow the members of the family to get involved socially and emotionally in the arrangements made by health professionals. The latter should also address the problem of cultural awareness that will result in older people’s underestimated self-scoring. Health professionals should meet older adults` needs in order to prevent them from feeling lonely. Although the article discusses several pathways to loneliness, still there are implications for further qualitative research, which should provide an in-depth evaluation of the nature of loneliness, its causes and consequences to the generation of older people due to their vulnerability. According to Ayalon et al. (2012), there is a need to continue to explore factors that are related to loneliness in older adults in general as well as more specific factors related to loneliness in older adults under a live-in foreign home care worker. (p. 196)

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Other important notions that are discussed in the article are associated with understanding whether self-forgiveness might be an injury to a person, as sometimes the concept might be used together with different rules, the existence of pseudo-forgiveness and level of its appropriateness. The authors introduce the model of self-forgiveness that includes such components as guilt, shame, attributions, conciliatory behavior, perception of forgiveness that comes from another side or victim, as well as the offences’ severity. Thus, the model has certain limitations as there are a few facilitators of self-forgiveness. The authors finish their article by providing additional ideas for further research and concluding that it would be beneficial to study deeper the matter of self-forgiveness.


First, I must state that after reading the abovementioned article, I changed my perception of self-forgiveness and its main components. Moreover, I have understood why it is so important in terms of interpersonal transgression and that sometimes it might be an injury or become unreal; then, it is called pseudo-forgiveness.

It was interesting for me to find out that self-forgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness actually differ; they both have similar motivations, but the levels and areas they affect are not the same. Self-forgiveness creates motivation that is about change, but this cannot be applied to interpersonal forgiveness as it is permanent and unconditional.

It was rather informative for me to read about pseudo self-forgiveness. Thereafter, the true forgiveness comes only after an individual understands that he or she really did something wrong.