It was difficult for France to get out of the crisis, and the French government’s anti-crisis programs hardly worked.

It was difficult for France to get out of the crisis, and the French government’s anti-crisis programs hardly worked.

05/08/2011

The crisis of the 30s: the world economy. Abstract

This is one factor that led to the development of world economic relations, was the Great Depression of 1929 – 1933. It is believed that the first sign of this depression was the fall of shares on October 24, 1929 on the New York Stock Exchange. This crisis disrupted all international economic relations, led to a massive decline in industrial production and the decline of other sectors of the economy in the world’s leading countries.

The greatest shock due to the crisis of the thirties was the US economy, it was quite noticeable in Britain, Germany and Japan.

USA

In the context of the impact of the global crisis of the late 1920s and early 1930s, we should first consider the country that became the beginning of this crisis – the United States.

The state and the authorities reduced their intervention in the economy to a minimum (in accordance with the economic policy common at that time). The crisis and its consequences have changed the economic policy of the state and its attitude to economic processes. The United States has taken its own path in overcoming the effects of the crisis. This own path was associated with the new course of President Roosevelt, which was based on strengthening the kind of state in regulating economic processes.

The strong personality of the president and the government’s responsibility for the consequences of the program they implemented became the basis for economic recovery. In fact, for the first time in world practice, under peaceful conditions, the state took on the role of regulator and coordinator of economic activity (the USSR fell out of the then system – capitalist or imperialist). This experience proved to be justified.

The main components of President Roosevelt’s new course were:

recovery of the banking and financial system (rather harsh methods: the bankruptcy of hundreds of banks was recognized); adoption of a law on gold reserves and large-scale purchase of gold in order to strengthen the national monetary system; devaluation of the dollar – in order to support industrial capital; industrial recovery (in accordance with the law adopted in connection with the crisis); organization of public works as a means of combating unemployment and increasing the purchasing power of society; the Agricultural Regulation Act (measures taken by the Roosevelt government in this regard at the time are still the basis of US agriculture); adoption of the law on social security.

Other countries

It was difficult for France to get out of the crisis, and the French government’s anti-crisis programs hardly worked. Therefore, even before the Second World War, France in its development did not rise to the level of 1929.

Germany, Japan and Italy stand a little aside. They followed the path of militarization of their own economy. Moreover, the militarization of the German economy was accompanied by the spread in public opinion of the idea of ​​revenge, and in politics – the ideology and practice of fascism.

Eventually, this orientation of the three states – important subjects of international relations – led to the formation of the bloc (which was called the “Berlin-Rome-Tokyo axis”).

05/08/2011

Relations between the UN and Ukraine. Abstract

The UN Charter, signed on June 26, 1945, entered into force on October 24, 1945. This day is celebrated annually as the Day of the United Nations. Representatives of Ukraine took an active part in the development of the UN Charter. The head of the Ukrainian delegation at the conference in San Francisco, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR D. Manuilsky chaired the First Committee, where the Preamble and Chapter 1 “Objectives and Principles” of the Statute were developed

Ukraine was among the first to sign the Charter and join the group of 51 UN founding states. After the proclamation of Ukraine’s independence, participation in the activities of the United Nations was identified as one of the priorities of our country’s foreign policy.

As a founding member of the United Nations, Ukraine strictly adheres to the goals and principles of the Charter of the Organization, makes a significant contribution to its activities in the areas of international peace and security, disarmament, economic and social development, human rights, international law and more.

UN Secretaries General have visited Ukraine four times. U Tan (1962), Kurt Waldheim (1981), Perez de Cuellar (1987), and Boutros Boutros-Ghali (1993) paid official visits to Kyiv.

During 1994-2001, seven meetings of the President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma with the UN Secretary General took place: in 1994 in New York, in 1995 in Vienna, in 1996 in Moscow, in 1997 in Davos, under during the 52nd session of the UN General Assembly in September and November 1997, during the Washington Summit of NATO member states (April 1999), and during the UN Millennium Summit (September 2000). In 1995, the President of Ukraine took part in the Special Solemn Meeting of the UN General Assembly at the highest level on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations. He also participated in the 49th and 52nd sessions of the UN General Assembly, was the Head of the Ukrainian delegation at the 19th Special Session of the UN General Assembly on Environment and the UN Millennium Summit.

On September 7, 2000, at the initiative of the President of Ukraine, a meeting of the UN Security Council was held at the level of heads of state and government (UN Security Council Summit) to discuss “Ensuring an effective role of the Security Council in maintaining international peace and security, especially in Africa. ” This meeting of the Republic of Belarus at the highest level, the second in the history of the UN, had a positive impact on restoring and strengthening the authority of the Security Council, and gave a powerful impetus to efforts to strengthen the UN Charter, the principles of collective security and reform of UN peacekeeping policy. operations.

In 1997, the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ukraine H. Udovenko was elected Chairman of the 52nd Session of the UN General Assembly. Ukraine is especially proud of the fact that the 52nd session of the UN General Assembly, which went down in history as a “reform session”, approved the comprehensive reform program of the Organization proposed by its Secretary General K. Annan and gave a powerful impetus to large-scale renewal of the Organization.

As an active supporter and direct participant in the current process of UN reform, Ukraine continues to make significant efforts to increase the effectiveness of the UN and its adaptation to new requirements of today. Ukraine was elected a non-permanent member of the Security Council three times (1948-1949, 1984-1985, 2000-2001), and four times a member of the Economic and Social Council (the last time was 1993-1995). Representatives of Ukraine have been repeatedly elected to leading positions in the main committees of the General Assembly sessions.

One of the most important confirmations of recognition of the authority and role of our state in the international arena, consistency and impartiality of its foreign policy was the election of Ukraine as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for the period 2000-2001 … For more than 1.5 years of membership in the Security Council proved its ability to be an active member of the Republic of Belarus, whose position is taken into account, to effectively influence the process of making fateful decisions in the Republic of Belarus and to make its own practical contribution to their implementation.

The culmination of Ukraine’s membership in the UN Security Council was its chairmanship of this body in March 2001. This month has become one of the most productive and effective in the activities of Belarus, which has addressed a number of the world’s most pressing issues, in particular, the crisis in the Balkans and the Middle East.

Our state attaches great importance to the issue of reforming the Security Council. Ukraine supports the expansion of the membership of the Republic of Belarus, supporting the increase in the number of both permanent and non-permanent members. An indispensable precondition for our state to support any variant of reforming the UN Security Council is to ensure an adequate level of representation in this body of the countries of the Eastern European regional group.

Ukraine’s position on this issue is also based on the understanding that the institution of veto law does not correspond to modern international realities. Due attention is paid by Ukraine to ensuring further progress in strengthening transparency and improving the working methods of the UN Security Council.

Today Ukraine is a member of:

Committee on Program and Coordination, Ad Hoc Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, Committee on Contributions, Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People, Advisory Committee on the Study, Study, Dissemination and Wider Recognition of International Law, the Committee on Energy good lab report writing websites and Natural Resources, the Disarmament Commission, the Commission on Population and Development, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, the Executive Board of the United Nations Development Program, the United Nations Population Fund, the Executive Board of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the Executive Board labor organization, IAEA Board of Governors.

The representative of Ukraine, Ambassador V. Vasylenko, was elected to the ad lite judges of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Ukraine, as one of the founding members of the United Nations, attaches great importance to the UN’s work to maintain international peace and security, considering its participation in this activity as an important factor in its foreign policy. Since July 1992, our country has acted as a major contributor to UN peacekeeping operations. For 10 years, about 18,000 servicemen of the Armed Forces and law enforcement officers of Ukraine took part in the OPM.

Today, Ukraine is the largest contributor to UN peacekeeping operations among European countries and is one of the 10 largest contributors to the world and participates in UN missions in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kosovo (FRY) , Lebanon, and the East. Timor, Sierra Leone, Croatia.

As a major contributor to the UN Security Council, Ukraine assumes that one of the important aspects of peacekeeping operations is to achieve an adequate level of protection and security for their personnel. Given the severity of this problem, Ukraine became the initiator of the Convention on the Protection of UN Peacekeepers, which entered into force in January 1999.

Our state is making significant efforts to develop cooperation with international economic and environmental organizations, attract their potential in the socio-economic interests of Ukraine in order to accelerate the integration of our country into the world economy and solve acute environmental problems.